Related Resources on the LD@school Website

Click here to access the article Concrete – Representational – Abstract: An Instructional Strategy for Math.

Click here to access the resource Using Straws to Help Students Understand Place Value.

Click here to access the article Visual Representation in Mathematics.

Click here to access the article Helping Students with LDs Learn to Diagram Math Problems.

Click here to access the article Math Heuristics.

Click here to access the article Explicit Instruction: A Teaching Strategy in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities.

Click here to access the answer to the question There is a lot of information about identifying learning disabilities in mathematics. However, information about strategies and ideas for working with these disabilities is limited. What strategies work?.

Click here to access the video Collaborative Teacher Inquiry to Support Students with LDs in Math.

Click here to access the resource Counting to 99.

Click here to access the article Verbalization in Math Problem-Solving.


Agrawal, J., & Morin, L. L. (2016). Evidence‐based practices: Applications of concrete representational abstract framework across math concepts for students with mathematics disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 31(1), 34-44.

Alphonse, J. R. & Leblanc, R. (2014). Explicit Instruction: A Teaching Strategy in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from

Bottge, B. A. (2001). Reconceptualizing mathematics problem solving for low-achieving students. Remedial and Special Education, 22(2), 102-112.

Bouck, E. C., Satsangi, R., & Park, J. (2018). The concrete–representational–abstract approach for students with learning disabilities: An evidence-based practice synthesis. Remedial and Special Education, 39(4), 211-228.

Bouck, E. C., & Sprick, J. (2019). The Virtual-Representational-Abstract Framework to Support Students With Disabilities in Mathematics. Intervention in School and Clinic, 54(3), 173-180.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York, NY: The Guillford Press.

Fuchs, L. S., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Cirino, P. T., Fletcher, J. M., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2010). The effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice, on number combination skill among students with mathematics difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(2), 89-100.

Garforth, K. & Siegel, L. (2014). Concrete – Representational – Abstract: An Instructional Strategy for Math. Retrieved from

Jitendra, A. K., Nelson, G., Pulles, S. M., Kiss, A. J., & Houseworth, J. (2016). Is mathematical representation of problems an evidence-based strategy for students with mathematics difficulties?. Exceptional Children83(1), 8-25.

Kelly, B., & Carnine, D. (1996). Teaching problem-solving strategies for word problems to students with learning disabilities. LD Forum, 21(5), 5–9.

Landi, M. A. G. (2001). Helping students with learning disabilities make sense of word problems. Intervention in School and Clinic37, 13 – 18, 30.

Matheson, I. & Hutchinson, N. (2014). Visual Representation in Mathematics. Retrieved from

Miller, S. P., & Hudson, P. J. (2007). Using evidence‐based practices to build mathematics competence related to conceptual, procedural, and declarative knowledge. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(1), 47-57.

Miller, S. P., & Mercer, C. D. (1993). Mnemonics: Enhancing the math performance of students with learning difficulties. Intervention in School and Clinic29(2), 78-82.

Montague, M. (1997). Cognitive strategy instruction in mathematics for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 164–177.

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2005). Mathematics: The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8. Retrieved from

Robinson, K. & Hutchinson, N. (2014). Math Heuristics. Retrieved from

Strickland, T. K., & Maccini, P. (2013). The effects of the concrete–representational–abstract integration strategy on the ability of students with learning disabilities to multiply linear expressions within area problems. Remedial and Special Education34(3), 142-153.

Stylianou, D. (2010). Teachers’ conceptions of representation in middle school mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 13, 325–434.

Swanson, H. L. (2012). Cognitive profile of adolescents with math disabilities: Are the profiles different from those with reading disabilities?. Child Neuropsychology, 18(2), 125-143.

van Garderen, D. (2007). Teaching students with LD to use diagrams to solve mathematical word problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 540–553.

van Garderen, D., & Montague, M. (2003). Visual-spatial representation, mathematical problem solving, and students of varying abilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 246-254.

van Garderen, D., & Scheuermann, A. (2015). Diagramming word problems: A strategic approach for instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 50, 282–290.

van Garderen, D., Scheuermann, A., & Jackson, C. (2012). Examining how students with diverse abilities use diagrams to solve mathematics word problems. Learning Disability Quarterly, 36 145–160.

Zahner, D., & Corter, J. E. (2010). The process of probability problem solving: Use of external visual representations. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 12, 177–204.