## Related Resources on the LD@school Website

Click here to access the resource *Using Straws to Help Students Understand Place Value*.

Click here to access the article *Visual Representation in Mathematics*.

Click here to access the article *Helping Students with LDs Learn to Diagram Math Problems*.

Click here to access the article *Math Heuristics*.

Click here to access the video *Collaborative Teacher Inquiry to Support Students with LDs in Math*.

Click here to access the resource *Counting to 99*.

Click here to access the article *Verbalization in Math Problem-Solving*.

## References

Agrawal, J., & Morin, L. L. (2016). Evidence‐based practices: Applications of concrete representational abstract framework across math concepts for students with mathematics disabilities. *Learning Disabilities Research & Practice*, *31*(1), 34-44.

Alphonse, J. R. & Leblanc, R. (2014). *Explicit Instruction: A Teaching Strategy in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities*. Retrieved from https://www.ldatschool.ca/explicit-instruction-a-teaching-strategy-in-reading-writing-and-mathematics-for-students-with-learning-disabilities/

Bottge, B. A. (2001). Reconceptualizing mathematics problem solving for low-achieving students. *Remedial and Special Education, 22*(2), 102-112.

Bouck, E. C., Satsangi, R., & Park, J. (2018). The concrete–representational–abstract approach for students with learning disabilities: An evidence-based practice synthesis. *Remedial and Special Education, 39*(4), 211-228.

Bouck, E. C., & Sprick, J. (2019). The Virtual-Representational-Abstract Framework to Support Students With Disabilities in Mathematics. *Intervention in School and Clinic, 54*(3), 173-180.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). *Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention*. New York, NY: The Guillford Press.

Fuchs, L. S., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Cirino, P. T., Fletcher, J. M., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2010). The effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice, on number combination skill among students with mathematics difficulties. *Learning and Individual Differences, 20*(2), 89-100.

Garforth, K. & Siegel, L. (2014). *Concrete – Representational – Abstract: An Instructional Strategy for Math*. Retrieved from https://www.ldatschool.ca/concrete-representational-abstract/

Jitendra, A. K., Nelson, G., Pulles, S. M., Kiss, A. J., & Houseworth, J. (2016). Is mathematical representation of problems an evidence-based strategy for students with mathematics difficulties?. *Exceptional Children*, *83*(1), 8-25.

Kelly, B., & Carnine, D. (1996). Teaching problem-solving strategies for word problems to students with learning disabilities. *LD Forum, 21*(5), 5–9.

Landi, M. A. G. (2001). Helping students with learning disabilities make sense of word problems. *Intervention in School and Clinic*, *37, *13 – 18, 30*.*

Matheson, I. & Hutchinson, N. (2014). *Visual Representation in Mathematics*. Retrieved from https://www.ldatschool.ca/visual-representation/

Miller, S. P., & Hudson, P. J. (2007). Using evidence‐based practices to build mathematics competence related to conceptual, procedural, and declarative knowledge. *Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22*(1), 47-57.

Miller, S. P., & Mercer, C. D. (1993). Mnemonics: Enhancing the math performance of students with learning difficulties. *Intervention in School and Clinic*, *29*(2), 78-82.

Montague, M. (1997). Cognitive strategy instruction in mathematics for students with learning disabilities. *Journal of Learning* *Disabilities, 30*, 164–177.

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2005). *Mathematics: The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8*. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/math18curr.pdf

Robinson, K. & Hutchinson, N. (2014). *Math Heuristics*. Retrieved from https://www.ldatschool.ca/math-heuristics/

Strickland, T. K., & Maccini, P. (2013). The effects of the concrete–representational–abstract integration strategy on the ability of students with learning disabilities to multiply linear expressions within area problems. *Remedial and Special Education*, *34*(3), 142-153.

Stylianou, D. (2010). Teachers’ conceptions of representation in middle school mathematics. *Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 13*, 325–434.

Swanson, H. L. (2012). Cognitive profile of adolescents with math disabilities: Are the profiles different from those with reading disabilities?. *Child Neuropsychology, 18*(2), 125-143.

van Garderen, D. (2007). Teaching students with LD to use diagrams to solve mathematical word problems.* Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40,* 540–553.

van Garderen, D., & Montague, M. (2003). Visual-spatial representation, mathematical problem solving, and students of varying abilities. *Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18*, 246-254.

van Garderen, D., & Scheuermann, A. (2015). Diagramming word problems: A strategic approach for instruction. *Intervention in School and Clinic, 50*, 282–290.

van Garderen, D., Scheuermann, A., & Jackson, C. (2012). Examining how students with diverse abilities use diagrams to solve mathematics word problems. *Learning Disability Quarterly, 36 *145–160.

Zahner, D., & Corter, J. E. (2010). The process of probability problem solving: Use of external visual representations. *Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 12*, 177–204.